January 25, 2011 my wife and I were in Egypt and witnessed the beginning of the Egyptian Revolution, which led to the collapse of the Mubarak regime. We have decided to return to Egypt every year, at the same time, to observe the yearly anniversary of the Revolution.
Unfortunately, January 25, 26 and 27, 2013, Egypt faced chaotic demonstrations.
What caused such an upheaval? Why is the opposition angry? Why are there demonstrations occuring in many Egyptian cities? The following points are in our opinion the causes that led to the deterioration and upheaval within the Second Republic after the Revolution of January 25, 2011.
1. The Revolution’s main objectives have not been achieved. The protestors are blaming the Muslim Brothers and their political party, Freedom and Justice, for such failure.
2. The exclusion of other political and secular groups in the new government. The young Egyptians who initiated the Revolution were completely ignored.
3. The failure of the Muslim brothers to implement promises made before the elections. After the collapse of the Mubarak’s regime they publically declared that their party, Freedom and Justice, would nominate candidates for the parliament to run in one third of the districts. However, they did not keep their promise and ended up nominating candidates in all districts of Egypt. Furthermore, they stated they will not nominate a candidate for the presidency and Dr. Mohamed Morsi was indeed nominated.
4. The new president issued a constitutional decree granting him unlimited authority thus controlling the Executive, Legislative and Judicial powers. He then removed seven judges from the Higher Constitutional Court who were appointed by the deposed president Mubarak. President Morsi then transferred the authority of the dissolved Parliament to the Maglis al Shoura (Advisory Council), which is controlled by Islamist groups.
5. The Constitutional Committee nominated by the dissolved Parliament and whose most members belonged to Islamist groups was kept to draft the new Constitution. This was in contradiction of President’s Morsi promise during the electoral campaign to dissolve such committee since it did not represent Egyptian society in Toto.
6. The removal by the president, of the Attorney General, Abel Meguid, and the appointment of a new one. The Higher Judicial Council vehemently opposed this move.
7. The abolition of the Higher Egyptian Military Council, established during the Revolution under the leadership of Marshal el Tantawi, and the nomination of a new minister of defense, General el Sessi. This political act neutralized the authority of the military. However, it should be mentioned here that such act was welcomed by most of the revolutionary groups. Alas, it turned out that the new military ruler is nothing but a puppet for the new president!
8. The deterioration of Egyptian economic condition, the increase of unemployment rate, the high cost of living, the deterioration of security conditions, all led to an increase in the rate of crimes. This chaotic situation has given rise to unprecedented angst feeling among peaceful Egyptians.
Presently, Egyptians opposing the government are demanding the followings:
1. Curtailing the influence and interference of the Muslim Brothers in governmental affairs.
2. Recognizing the objectives of the Revolution, which was ignored by president Morsi and his cabinet.
3. Abolition of the New Constitution, which does not reflect the interest of all Egyptians or recognized the rights of women and other segments of the society.
4. Prosecuting those responsible for the massacring of young protestors during the past two years.
5. Bringing an end to political corruption by removing all influence of the previous regime and narrowing the influence of the Muslim Brothers which is reflected in the new nomination of two critical ministers: the minister of interior and the minister of information.
6. Replacing the government of Prime Minister Hisham Kandil by a capable national cabinet consisting of experts in different fields.
In conclusion, President Morsi is more interested in implementing the Muslim Brothers strategy over Egyptian national interest. He failed to reform economic and security institutions. Democracy has not been established. As a matter of fact, some of the most fanatic Islamists, such as the Salafis are claiming that democracy is in violation of Islam!!!It is unfortunate that such groups as the Muslim Brothers and other political Islamist groups are putting their own interest ahead of Egyptian national interest. They are in the process of securing their influence and domination over all governmental institutions. The majority of Egyptians rejects such near sighted political policy as it is reflected in the recent violence. According to the statement issued by the Minister of Health, the violent protest of the past few days ( January 25, 26. 27) caused the death of 41 Egyptians and 1139 personal injuries. Egyptians are not afraid any more and the government ought to be concerned about the recent