May 31, 2010

The Israeli’s Savage Attack of the International Flotilla

The international free flotilla, which consisted of nine ships carrying 650 people from 40 nations to include 44 government officials, politicians and parliamentarians from Arab and European countries who joined to protest the Israeli embargo that was imposed on one and a half million people in Gaza.

The ships were carrying food, medicine, hospital equipment and building materials to re-build what the savage Israel invasion of Gaza two years ago caused.

For four years, the Palestinians in Gaza have been deprived of the basic necessities of life including fresh, clean drinking water.

The free international flotilla was an international action to pressure Israel to lift its siege of Gaza. One and a half million Palestinians are living inside an iron cage that is called a Palestinian Holocaust.

Unfortunately, in defiance of the whole world, Israel attacked the flotilla and caused the deaths of 16 people and 26 were wounded. The ships were lead to Israeli ports instead of Gaza.

The next few days will reveal what the international law and order will do to penalize the fascist regime of Israel that has been defying international law since its creation.

Israel Rejection of U.N. Resolutions

The Israeli government just announced its rejection of the U.N. resolution asking it to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Also, Israel declared publicly that it will not participate in the proposed meeting to be held in 2012 to discuss the turning of the Middle East to a nuclear weapons-free region. The Israeli response was expected by people familiar with their defiance of everything that is not consistent with their fascist ideology, the supremacy of “Zionism”.

After Israel was given its birth certificate by the U.N. in 1948, in no time it rejected U.N. resolutions regarding Palestinian rights. Also, Israel has been in defiance of the International Court of Justice as well as in violation of the 1948 Geneva Treaty Convention.

All of this defiance is attributed in general to the U.S. government foreign policy, which provided Israel with an umbrella to protect its violations during the past 60 years. To illustrate this point, the U.S. used its veto power at the Security Council more than 75 times to neutralize resolutions submitted by other members that condemned Israel. As a result of such policies, the Palestinians resort to resisting Israeli occupation, which is a right according to the Geneva Convention Treaty of 1948. In return, they are labeled “terrorists” by the U.S. The U.S. government has the key that will lead to real peace between Israel and Palestine but unfortunately the American Congress is under the control of “AIPAC” and American Jewish organizations that are holding American national interest hostage for the benefit of Israel.

During a lecture given by Professor Noam Chomsky at UNESCO Palace in Beirut, Lebanon (5/27/2010), he state that “There is little prospect for peace between Israel and the Palestinians until a drastic change in the United States’ foreign policy occurs.” He continued to note that, “If the U.S. changes its policy, Israel has no option but to go along.” He also pointed out that, “The main forces that shape U.S. policy in the Middle East are the same that shape its policy everywhere else – concentrations of private capital. If these Middle East forces were to shift their capital, the Israeli lobby would collapse in two minutes.” (, 5/27/10)

One of the basic reasons that the Arab Gulf oil-producing countries are big investors in the U.S. is because of its support and protection of such corrupt regimes in the Middle East. These governments put their political securities ahead of the interests of their populations.

The crisis over Iran’s nuclear program is to keep Israel as the only dominant power in the region. The bombing by Israel of the Iraqi nuclear reactor in 1981 and the suspected nuclear site in Syria in 2007 reflects a clear indication of Israel’s military strategy. Shame on the corrupt Arab political regimes that have been under the thumb of the U.S. since their independence. The Arab world has failed to build their own nuclear arsenal to the counter Israeli military arrogance. The Arab political leadership has failed to learn from the cold war struggle between the U.S. and the old USSR. Neither side took the risk to attack the other because of the danger involved. There will be no winners in such nuclear war.

A recent example of Israeli military arrogance occurred when they sent three nuclear submarines to the Arab gulf area to intimidate Iran. Professor Noam Chomsky put it clearly recently that, “The latest crisis in the Middle East over Iran’s nuclear program, saying that if Iran was indeed seeking nuclear weapons, they would be doing so to deter aggression against them rather than to use them against Israel.” (, 5/27/2010). Unfortunately, the corrupt Arab political leadership is in a deep sleep.

May 27, 2010

The Negative Consequences of Egypt’s Economic Planning

During the past five decades of my academic career, I have travelled back and forth to my beloved Egypt. During my recent visit (April 2010), I noticed that the changes that have been taking place since the early 1970s have created more negative consequences than positive ones. There has been a steady deterioration in the educational, economic, and political institutions, as well as the environment and the infrastructure of the society at large. Furthermore, the population more than doubled during that period to reach 83 million people and nearly 45% of them are living below the poverty index level. Since the 1952 revolution, the Egyptian society has experienced four economical and political stages that have turned, in some respects, into different cycles of disorganization, especially in economic institutions. High government officials have executed and implemented policies in violation of Egyptian laws. This happened in lieu of transparencies and accountability. Government and public wealth has been dispersed by high government officials for the benefit of the few who were in control of the political arena with no questions asked. During the past four decades, corruption in all governmental institutions has been deep rooted and it is not an easy task to undo. This situation lead to a state of political, economic and social disorganization in Egyptian society.

In an interesting article (al-ahram, 4/30/2010), D.F. Goweda noted a letter written by Professor of Law D.T. Badawi titled, “il-Qanun fi-ijazah” (“The law on vacation), in which he stated that, “… high Egyptian government officials have been executing and implementing policies that are in violation of Egyptian law … disposing of government and public wealth in an irresponsible manner, disregarding legal procedure and threatening Egypt’s future economy.”

Professor T. Badawi noted the impact of the transformation of the Egyptian economy during the previous three decades. A shift from government directed economic model to the free economic model, then a shift to the uncontrollable economic model. This occurred as a result of high government officials ignoring the law and legal procedures in disposing of government public assets without holding government officials accountable for their actions. He further noted that political decisions were implemented as a result of ignorance of the law and legal procedures, despite the fact that such information was available to them. The other factor is that since political decisions were made, disregarding legal procedures is attributed to corruption.

There is no doubt that corruption is deep rooted and at all levels of government. May the almighty have mercy on the Egyptian population in general, who are suffering as a result of their corrupt political system.

Water Diversion and its Environmental Consequences

The Jordanian Friends of the Earth Organization met recently near the Dead Sea in Jordan. The organization reported that the Jordan River is drying out due to the diversion of more than 90% of its water into Israel. This process began in the 1960s in violation of international laws. The laws clearly state that the flow of water of rivers which cross international boundaries should not be diverted to the benefit of one state without consensus with others who share the same source of water flows. Israel, as usual, has ignored international laws and its actions produced serious negative consequences. First, Jordanian farmers in the Jordan valley no longer get enough water for their farms. They get 6% of the water flow and this portion is highly polluted. Israel mixed its polluted water starting south of the Sea of Galilee with the meager Jordan River water flow to increase the Jordanian share. The meager water flow is not even suitable for cultivation. Second, the diversion of a big portion of water is causing dryness in the Jordan River bed. Third, due to the lack of fresh water flow from the Jordan River since Israel began diverting water in the 1960s, there have been severe consequences on the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea is the harvest spot below sea level worldwide and it is drying out. The Jordanian Friends of the Earth reported that the Dead Sea water level has dropped 25 meters and the sea has lost one-third of its original size.

In previous posts, references were made to Israel’s aggressive policies, especially in regard to the control of water resources in the occupied West Bank, as well as tapping underground water resources within Lebanese boundaries. Such aggressive Israeli policies are in violation of international law.

The Stagnation of the Egyptian Educational System

The Egyptian educational system has been in a state of decay and deterioration for several decades. Traditionally, Egypt used to be the center of learning and enlightenment in the Arab world. It is unfortunate that drastic and negative decline has impacted educational institutions at all levels. This is attributed to (among other things) the fact that the government budget allocated to education is too little when compared with population growth. Such a budget cannot provide the academic requirements for the needed changes.

Recently, the national committee on education, scientific research and technology wrote a report critical of the education system and those responsible officials who are ignoring the negative impact of student demographic increases on the available physical learning facilities. In its 2001 report, the committee called for the construction and expansion of schools at a rate of 420,000 per year during the following 16 years (2001 – 2017) to meet the projected increase of students who will reach school-age.

Unfortunately, since then only 18,000 schools have been constructed (al-shrouk, May 9, 2010). This situation has lead to overcrowded schools where the number of students per classroom is estimated at 85 – 100. Such a high class density was criticized by Dr. I. Fawzi, a member of the committee, who pointed out that the government should be blamed for the deterioration of the quality of education at all levels in Egypt. He noted that the allocation of 10% of the national governmental budget to education should be at the least doubled to meet Egypt’s future challenge. He also criticized the government for asking the private sector to help build schools. There were 5,118 privately run schools as of the 2008-2009 school year. Nearly all these schools are located in big urban cities and are administered by foreigners. The student fees are very high and unaffordable for the majority of families to enroll their children in (almasry-alyoum, May 5, 2010).

Dr. Ahmed Z. Bader, the Minister of Education, noted that the committee’s report recognized that an educational crisis prevails in Egypt. He further pointed out that among other things, the limited educational budget didn’t allow for the needed physical expansion of educational institutions.

In my judgment, the most important requirement for progress and advancement in any society depends on its educational system. Since the government is not allocating enough money to meet the educational challenges, new taxes are needed. In a previous post, I pointed out that there are between 55-60 million cellular phones in use in Egypt. One to two Egyptian pounds per month as an excise tax will generate over one billion Egyptian pounds per year that could be exclusively allocated to increase the budget for new school construction. Such a small financial tax should not create a burden for cellular phone users. It is unfortunate, however, that a vast amount of government elected officials lack the ability to think and are not playing a constructive role in their society.

World Press Freedom Day

Recently (May 3 – 6, 2010) journalist unions and press organizations celebrated World Press Freedom Day. In the Arab world, conferences were held to demand that their governments lift their censorships and allow the press to freely report events and news to their readers. Governments in different Arab states have imposed, quite frequently, their control over the press under their own definition of protecting the security of their states. For example, Egypt, the leading Arab state, created the “emergency law” nearly 30 years ago under the pretext to fight “terrorism” and drug dealers. However, the law has been used as an umbrella to suppress political oppositions and curtail the freedom of the press. In reality, the law has been used to protect heads of state, minister and high government officials from accountability and transparency. This also takes place due to the absence of democracy. For that and other reasons, corruption is deep rooted at all governmental levels. As a result, on May 3, 2010, the United Arab Journalists Association warned that “The freedom of the Arab press lately has experienced a decline in some Arab states.” More restrictions on freedom of journalists and jail sentences and punishment have been used in violation of guidelines, according to the United Journalist Association. Some Arab governments have failed even in providing the minimal freedom of expression (, May 4, 2010). In Democratic, open societies, the press plays a very important role in providing the public with information, especially about the performance of public officials. Accountability and transparency is the foundation of Democratic institutions.

Unfortunately, such institutions are not part of Arab governmental structures. That is why, among other things, corruption is deep rooted and at all levels of governmental institutions.

May 25, 2010

The Israeli Water Strategy

In the previous post, references were made to foreign penetration in the Nile River basin, including the state of Israel. However, the Israeli water strategy behind the active technical and financial role in some of the Nile River basin countries, especially Ethiopia and Kenya, needs to be examined. Reviewing the historical Zionist movement strategy even before the creation of Israel reveals, among other things, that at the turn of the 20th century Zionist leaders in Britain approached the government to permit Jews to live in Sinai and to let them construct a canal to connect with the Nile River. The request was rejected by both the British and the Egyptian governments. At the time, Egypt was under British colonialist rule. Zionist ideology calls for the creation of “Eretz Israel” (greater Israel) that stretches from the Nile River west to the Euphrates and Tigris River east. After the creation of Israel in 1948, it began to gradually implement its water strategy. The Israeli Prime Minister Ben Gurion state publicly in 1955 that Israel was involved in a war for water with its Arab neighbors. Israel has diverted more than 90% of the Jordan River water into Israel without consideration of Jordan’s water needs. During the early 1970s, Syria and Jordan agreed to build a dam to divert some of the Yarmouk River water into Jordan to make up for its loss of water from the Jordan River. Israel warned that the proposed project would be bombed. Syria and Jordan canceled the project under Israeli military threats. In addition, Israel refused to evacuate the Syrian occupied land in order to control the shores of Lake Tiberias. Also, Israel tapped the underground water in the occupied Lebanese lands. Furthermore, Israel was in full control of the underground water of the occupied West Bank and deprived the Palestinians from equal water share.

During the 1970s, after Israel and Egypt signed the peace treaty, Menachem Begin, the Israeli prime minister, asked President Sadat if Israel could share the Nile River water with Egypt. President Sadat rejected the request and said they did not have enough water to satisfy their own needs. Israel’s water strategy moved toward the Nile River basin countries, especially Ethiopia, where 85% of the water that flows through the Nile comes from the Blue Nile. Also, Israel began to penetrate Kenya as well.

In an article in akher s9aa (May 5, 2010) Dr. M. Okasha noted that Israel is building 40 water projects on the Blue Nile River in Ethiopia that will hold 80 billion cu. met. of water when completed. This will affect both Sudan and Egypt’s water share from the Nile River. Furthermore, Dr. Okasha pointed out that Israel provided Kenya with technical and financial aid equal to around $500 million per year. Also, Israel has been plotting in a secret ways to stop Egyptian influences with the Nile River basin countries.

In a book written by an ex-Mossad officer, “Mosha Ferji”, it was pointed out that Israel convinced the Africans in Southern Sudan to stop a joint project between Egypt and Sudan to construct the Gongly/Jonglei canal to save and store water being wasted in southern swamps.

Israel is planting the seeds of conflict that might lead the African Nile River basin countries to pressure Egypt to share the Nile River water. This prediction is because of Israel’s technical and financial help.

Since the death of Gamal A. Nasser, the Egypt government has gradually lost the influence it used to have in East Africa. The 1995 attempted assassination of Mubarek in Ethiopia created a hostile atmosphere between the two countries.

Only in the last few years did the Egyptian government begin to wake up to the indirect Israeli threat to Egypt through some of the Nile River basin countries. The next few years will reflect on the impact of the Israeli influence among the Nile River basin countries and its consequences on both Sudan and Egypt.

Revoking the 1929 Nile River Water Treaty

The new agreement which has been developed by the eight Nile River basin countries is being implemented gradually. As of May 14th, 2010, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya and Rwanda have signed the new agreement and canceled the 1929 Nile River water sharing treaty. Both Egypt and Sudan have objected and refused to go along and stated publicly that such an action is in violation of international law. The Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenowi responded by saying publicly that Egypt can’t decide how to use the water anymore. He also said that Ethiopia will continue to build dams to generate power and develop the agricultural sector because Ethiopia is poor and needs to develop its economy. He stated that Egypt will be better off if it will join the Nile River group. The most difficult part of this situation is the fact that Egypt is located at the end of the Nile River, which flows more than 6,600 kilometers before it reaches t Mediterranean Sea. Furthermore, the rainfall on the East African region, which excludes the Nile River basin countries, has been estimated to exceed 1,600 billion cu. met. of water per year. Compare that to the meager rainfall on Egypt, which has been estimated at 1.3 billion cu. met. per year. It is unfortunate that nearly half of the rainfall on the East African region is wasted. It flows into swamps and valleys and only 84 billion cu. met. of water reaches Sudan and Egypt through the Nile River. So far, there has been no attempt to save the wasted rain water that could be used by all. However, during the past few decades there has been a foreign penetration in the East African region by the U.S., China, India, Iran, Israel and others. All are seeking to cultivate the region’s natural resources. At the same time, the Nile River basin countries are poverty stricken and they welcome the financial, economic and military aid being offered to them.

In its May 22, 2010 issue, the Economist revealed that China is lending Ethiopia billions of dollars, including $460 million to build a controversial dam on the Omo River. It is a well known fact that Ethiopia is among the poorest and hungriest countries in the world. Any financial and technical aid given to the Ethiopians will be accepted by the government. The critical question here is: what will be the impact of the construction of dams by China or any other states on countries down stream such as Sudan and Egypt. Both depend on the water of the Nile River.

There are some countries that have their own undeclared political strategy that they want to achieve. Israel is among the most active and will be discuss

May 24, 2010

Outrageous Treatment of a Palestinian-American Student

I recently returned from Egypt and heard that the Wayne State University study group encountered unfortunate difficulties. An American student of Palestinian background named Abeer Afana was denied entry into Israel and was sent back to the United States. It is unfortunate that the academicians who were leading the group committed a blunder. They should have warned the responsible people at the airport that the whole group should be admitted or the whole group should be sent back to the U.S. Denying one student that opportunity is an act of academic discrimination that reflects on Wayne State University.

Three years ago I was asked by high academic administrators to help them organize a study tour of Israel. I was hesitant to do so and I explained to them that based on my study tour experience in Europe and the Middle East during the past 30 years that the proposed study tour to Israel carried risks. From my perspective, student safety is a must. Study tour leaders should have the experience and cultural knowledge of the area to be visited. In my judgment, neither of these issues was stressed. However, I volunteered to give two lectures to the group before their departure. Later on, due to the Israeli invasion and massacre of nearly 1400 Palestinians in Gaza, I refused to participate in such academic study tours as a sign of protest against Israel’s barbaric actions.

Nevertheless, denying the young American woman entry is common, arrogant Israeli behavior. Just a few days ago, Professor Noam Chomsky was prevented from entering Israel from Jordan to give a presentation at Bir Zeit University in the occupied West Bank. Professor Chomsky, a world renowned linguist at M.I.T. is labeled by Jewish Zionists as a “self-hating Jew” because he criticizes Israeli policies toward the Palestinians. He is among quite few academicians of the Jewish faith who are holding the traditional Jewish torch, “Let there be light”.

The sad experience that the Wayne State student experienced should not be dismissed lightly and I, among others, am waiting to see what Wayne State University is going to do.

May 20, 2010

Reliance on Food Imports by Arab States

Recently, the Arab agricultural development organization met in Algeria to discuss, “Arab Food Security”. Official reports revealed that Arab governments’ food imports from abroad reached $30 billion last year (2009).

This increase reflects a dangerous trend. According to Dr. Tariq B.N. Alzajah the director of the Arab Agricultural Development Organization, “there is a big and dangerous gap between agricultural production and food needs in the Arab world, despite a 12.4% increase in food production during the past two years (2007-2009).” He noted that wheat production increased from 49.9 million tons to 55 million tons, an increase of five million tons. Nevertheless, there are still shortages of food, especially of wheat and corn, to meet the increasing demands (, April 28, 2010). The increasing food imports in the Arab world to meet the growing demands reflects a dangerous trend that also should be viewed in light of the following factors. First, Arab population growth is projected to double by the year 2030, reaching at least 650 million people. Second, the Arab world is classified among the driest regions in the world. Nearly 2/3 of the land is classified as desert. Furthermore, the global weather warming will enhance further desertification in the region. Third, most of the countries in the Arab world are classified as water poverty stricken states. 18 out of the 22 states have less than 1000 cu. met./person/year according to the U.N. Fourth, a recent report by “FAO” – U.N. revealed that there are more than one billion people who are not getting enough food to eat on a daily basis. The report also projected that the world population will reach 9 billion people by the year 2050 and the demand f or food will also increase.

Are the political leaders of the Arab world aware of the food shortages? What are they doing to meet the present and future challenges of basic food needs?

The Nile River - Egypt's Lifeline

In a previous post, I have noted that Egypt and the Nile River Basin countries have failed to reach an agreement during their last meeting in Sharm el-Sheik (April 14, 2010). The past 10 years of meetings and official discussions of the 1929 water treaty did not lead to an agreement between the seven Nile River basin countries, Egypt and Sudan. The Nile River Treaty, which was signed by these countries while under British colonial rule, allocates 55 billion cu. met. of water per year to Egypt and a lesser amount to Sudan. Both countries are at the end of the Nile River flow. Furthermore, the treaties of 1929 and 1959 noted that no project should be undertaken by any member of the Nile River basin countries that might threaten Egypt’s water shares.

Nevertheless, on May 14, 2010, four countries: Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania and Rwanda, signed an agreement rejecting the Nile River water treaty of 1929.

Egypt and Sudan have both rejected the new agreement, which doesn’t reflect how the Nile River water should be shared.

It has been reported that a high Kenyan government official said that the new agreement would only lead to further discussion that will produce a new agreement for the benefit of all.

In the next post I will try to discuss the factors behind the Nile River Basin countries’ rejection of the 1929 treaty.

May 17, 2010

Egypt: The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Poorer

During the past four decades a new economic trend began to emerge with the privatization of the economy. This led to a new, negative economic consequence, impacting the majority of the Egyptian population. Recently the Egyptian government issued a report reflecting that the economic gap between the rich and poor continued to widen. This means that the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer.

This situation negatively impacted not only the economic condition of the vast majority of the Egyptian population but also their educational, social and health conditions. For example, the report revealed that:

1) 34% of the poverty stricken between the ages of 20 and 25 did not attend school at all, compared to only 1% of the same age group of rich families.

2) 97.9% of children of well to do families finished elementary education and 91% of them graduated from high school, while only 56.7% of poor children were able to complete their elementary education and only 50% graduated from high school.

The impact of poverty on the Egyptian population was also reflected in a research project that was sponsored by UNICEF (February 2010) in the Middle East. The research focused on the impact of poverty on children and their deprivation of many basic needs. The report revealed that more than one-fourth of Egyptian children (7 million children) were deprived of many of their basic needs, which is in violation of the agreement which the Egyptian government has signed “The International Children Rights of 1989”.

The director of UNICEF in the Middle East noted that more than half of Egyptian children under the age of 18 are living on less than two dollars a day. The UNICEF report concluded by stating that the Egyptian government has failed to provide even basic needs in education, health services and sanitation ( 4/18/2010).

Poverty, unemployment and the absence of transparency and democracy are the major factors behind the public uprising we have recently been observing in Egypt. The UNICEF report also revealed that 86% of the poverty stricken population is dissatisfied with their economic conditions and are unable to cope with the continuous increases in the cost of living. How can an average family live on £ 3,017 Egyptian pounds per year (the equivalent of nearly $512.10)?
Paul Bremer’s Criminal Strategy in Iraq

Among the causes of the continuous violence in Iraq since the American invasion of 2003 are the rising unemployment rate and its economic, political and social impact on the Iraqi society. Recently, it has been reported that the unemployment in Iraq at the present exceeds 50% ( 4/20/2010).

In previous posts (2009) I have referred to the fact that Paul Bremer, the American governor of Iraq, who was appointed in 2004, implemented a plan that led to the destruction of the Iraqi political military and economic system. Bremer issued an order in 2004 that prevented the Iraqi Central Bank from funding state-owned economic enterprises system. More than 192 state factories employing more than 500,000 people were closed.

Furthermore, he dismantled the Iraqi army as well as the civil service under the pretext of debaathification. This action affected millions of Iraqis who discovered they were suddenly without jobs. For more information, read “The Iraqi War Conspiracy and its Tragic Aftermath”.

Mr. Bremer, who is known as a “neocon”, went to Iraq with a personal plan in mind: the “destruction of Iraq, economically and militarily.”

The result of such action was individual and group violence in Iraq due to economic deprivations.

Mr. Bremer and others in the Bush administration should be investigated and tried by the International Court of Justice for the war crimes they committed during the invasion of Iraq from 2003-2010).
The Iraq Hidden Tragedy

In several previous posts, references were made to the negative impacts on children’s health conditions as a result of the use of chemical weapons by American troops in Iraq during the last seven years (2003-2010). In an article written by Charles Glass (Taki’s Magazine 3/25/2010), elaborating on a report by BBC, BBC correspondent John Simpson reported that, “The number of defects in newborn babies in the Iraqi town of Fallujah had risen dramatically since the American assault there at the end of 2004.” Furthermore, Mr. Simpson interviewed Dr. Samira al-Ani, a pediatrician at Fallujah’s General Hospital, who said that two or three children were born daily with serious cardiac problems. However, there have not been any studies done on the impact of the use of chemicals during the war on children, according to Mr. Simpson. He said that American spokesmen were reluctantly forced to admit that use of “white phosphorous” or “white pete” as the troops call it in Fallujah. Mr. Simpson also referred to Field Artillery Magazine, a U.S. Army publication, which had documented in its March/April 2005 edition that white phosphorous was used in Fallujah during the battle in 2004. The U.S. government does not want it known that it was using chemicals on human beings in a country whose leader it overthrew ostensibly because he retained the capacity to do the same thing (Charles Glass, Taki’s Magazine 2009).

Many people who were following the U.S. news can recall officials in the Bush administration stating that Saddam Hussein was a ruthless leader who used chemicals and poison gas against his own people and that he needed to be removed.

It is not unusual for American politicians to use a double standard to justify their own actions and condemn others for doing the same evil things. The Bush administration should be held responsible for the atrocity of the Iraqi War.